Identifying the poly methyl methacrylate behavior during free thermoforming using experimental tests and numerical simulation
Mansour Sattarian 1, 2
More details
Hide details
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad
Modern Manufacturing Technologies Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad
Online publish date: 2019-10-15
Publish date: 2019-10-15
Submission date: 2017-07-19
Acceptance date: 2019-05-17
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 2019;57(4):909–921
Thermoforming is one of the new methods for forming of polymer sheets. Free thermoforming is one of the thermoforming methods in which shaping is done with air pressure or vacuum without the plug mold. In this paper, free thermoforming of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) has been investigated by experimental tests and finite element simulation. The main purpose of this article is the identification of the real behavior of PMMA during free thermoforming to achieve maximum workable air pressure with respect to initial thickness. For this, at first, tensile and relaxation tests have been done in working temperature (160◦C). Then the process was simulated by Abaqus software with considering four types of the material property: three hyperelastic models (Ogden, Mooney-Rivlin, and Marlow) and a hyperviscoelastic model. After that, experimental tests were done, and the samples final shape were compared with simulation results. Accordingly, the simulation results obtained based on the Marlow hyperelastic model showed the best agreement with the experiments compared to others. After that, maximum workable air pressure versus plate initial thickness and minimum thickness of the deformed plate were achieved by finite element simulation.
Alexander H., 1968, A constitutive relation for rubber-like materials, International Journal of Engineering Science, 6, 9, 549-563, DOI: 10.1016/0020-7225(68)90006-2.
Alobaidani A.D., Furniss D., Johnson M.S., Endruweit A., Seddon A.B., 2010, Optical transmission of PMMA optical fibres exposed to high intensity UVA and visible blue light, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 48, 5, 575-582, DOI: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2009.11.012.
Azdast T., Doniavi A., Ahmadi S.R., 2013, Numerical and experimental analysis of wall thickness variation of a hemispherical PMMA sheet in thermoforming process, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 64, 113-122.
Bagherzadeh S., Biglari F.R., Nikbin K., 2010, Parameter study of stretch-blow moulding process of polyethylene terephthalate bottles using finite element simulation, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 224, 8, 1217-1227, DOI: 10.1243/09544054JEM1853.
Bourgin P., Cormeau I., Saint-Matin T., 1995, A first step towards the modelling of the thermoforming of plastic sheets, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 54, 1-4, 111, DOI: 10.1016/0924-0136(95)01910-3.
D-638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, ASTM, United States, 2004.
Dong Y., Lin R.J.T., Bhattacharyya D., 2005, Determination of critical material parameters for numerical simulation of acrylic sheet forming, Journal of Materials Science, 40, 399-410.
Dong Y., Lin R.J.T., Bhattacharyya D., 2006, Finite element eimulation on thermoforming acrylic sheets using dynamic explicit method, Polymers and Polymer Composites, 14, 3, 307-328, DOI: 10.1177/096739110601400310.
Ghoreishy M.H.R., 2012, Determination of the parameters of the Prony series in hyper-viscoelastic material models using the finite element method, Materials and Design, 35, 791-797, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2011.05.057.
Guo Z., Sluys L.J., 2006, Application of a new constitutive model for the description of rubber-like materials under monotonic loading, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 43, 9, 2799-2819, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2005.06.026.
Han P., Butterfield J., Buchanan S., McCool R., Jiang Z., Price M., Murphy A., 2013, The prediction of process-induced deformation in a thermoplastic composite in support of manufacturing simulation, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 227, 10, 1417-1429, DOI: 10.1177/0954405413488362.
Mahl M., Jelich C., Baier H., 2016, Thermo-mechanical behavior of polyethylene under mechanical loads at cryogenic and elevated temperatures, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 150, 11-18, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2016.12.007.
Marques S.P., Creus G.J., 2012, Solution with Abaqus, [In:] Computational Viscoelasticity, Springer Briefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 103111.
Meissner J., 1987, Polymer melt elongation – methods, results, and recent developments, Polymer Engineering and Science, 27, 8, 537-546, DOI: 10.1002/pen.760270802.
Meissner J., Raible T., Stephenson S.E., 1981, Rotary clamp in uniaxial and biaxial extensional rheometry of polymer melts, Journal of Rheology, 25, 1, DOI: 10.1122/1.549635.
Milani G., Milani F., 2012, Stretch-stress behavior of elastomeric seismic isolators with different rubber materials: numerical insight, Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), 138, 5, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000340.
Ramezani M., Ripin Z.M., Ahmad R., Akil H.M., Damghani-Nouri M., 2010, High strain-rate bulge forming of sheet metals using a solid bulging medium, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 224, 2, 257-270, DOI: 10.1243/09544054JEM1550.
Schmidt L.R., Carley J.F., 1975a, Biaxial stretching of heat-softened plastic sheets: Experiments and results, Polymer Engineering and Science, 15, 51, DOI: 10.1002/pen.760150109.
Schmidt L.R., Carley J.F., 1975b, Biaxial stretching of heat-softened plastic sheets using an inflation technique, International Journal of Engineering Science, 13, 6, 563-578, DOI: 10.1016/0020-7225(75)90091-9.
Shapourgan O., Faraji G., 2016, Rubber pad tube straining as a new severe plastic deformation method for thin-walled cylindrical tubes, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 230, 10, 1845-1854, DOI: 10.1177/0954405416654185.
Sharabi M., Varssano D., Eliasy R., Benayahu Y., Benayahu D., Haj-Ali R., 2016, Mechanical flexure behavior of bio-inspired collagen-reinforced thin composites, Composite Structures, 153, 392-400, DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.06.031.
Simulia, Abaqus CAE documentation, Dassault systemes, 2012.
Throne J.L., 1996, Technology of Thermoforming, Hanser Publishers, Munich.
Treloar L.R.G., 1958, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, p. 78.
Wang J., Xu Y., Zhang W., 2014, Finite element simulation of PMMA aircraft windshield against bird strike by using a rate and temperature dependent nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model, Composite Structures, 108, 21-30.
Williams J.G., 1970, A method of calculation for thermoforming plastics sheets, Journal of Strain Analysis, 5, 1, 49-57, DOI: 10.1243/03093247V051049.
Zafošnik B., Božič U., Florjanič B., 2015, Modelling of an analytical equation for predicting maximum stress in an injections moulded undercut geometry during ejection, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 16, 12, 2499-2507.